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Integration information technology in schools: Examining the enabling factors
Khe Foon HEW, Cheng Yong TAN

Last modified: 2017-05-02


Given the potential of IT integration on students’ achievement, researchers quite understandably shift their attention to examine what IT-related variables predict effective IT integration in teaching-learning in schools. This study presents data from 32,256 secondary school students from 2,519 schools in 16 developed economies who participated in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis, that after controlling for student-level (gender, prior academic achievement and socioeconomic status) and school-level (class size, number of mathematics teachers) variables, students in schools with more computers per student, with more IT resources, with higher levels of IT curricular expectations, with an explicit policy on the use of IT in mathematics, whose teachers believed in student-centered teaching-learning, and whose teachers provided more problem-solving activities in class reported higher levels of IT integration. On the other hand, students who studied in schools with more positive teacher-related school learning climate, and with more academically demanding parents reported lower levels of IT integration. Student-related school learning climate, principal leadership behaviors, schools’ public posting of achievement data, tracking of school’s achievement data by administrative authorities, and pedagogical and curricular differentiation in mathematics lessons were not related to levels of IT integration.